Acupuncture therapy for the improvement of sleep quality of outpatients receiving methadone maintenance treatment: a randomized controlled trial
To study the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for the improvement of sleep quality of outpatients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT).
Using randomized double-blinded controlled design, seventy-five MMT outpatients with low sleep quality [score of Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) > or = 8], were randomly assigned to the acupuncture group (38 cases) and the sham-acupuncture group (37 cases). All patients maintained previous MMT. Acupuncture was applied to Baihui (GV20), Shenmen (bilateral, TF4), Shenting (GV24), Sanyinjiao (bilateral, SP6), and Sishencong (EX-HN1) in the acupuncture group. The same procedures were performed in the sham-acupuncture group, but not to the acupoints (5 mm lateral to the acupoints selected in the acupuncture group) with shallow needling technique. The treatment was performed 5 times each week for 8 successive weeks. The PSQI was assessed before treatment, at the end of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week of the treatment. The detection ratio of low sleep quality and the incidence of adverse acupuncture reactions were compared between the two groups at the end of the 8th week.
The overall PSQI score was obviously higher in the acupuncture group than in the sham-acupuncture group with statistical difference (P < 0.01). The detection ratio of low sleep quality at the end of the 8th week was lower in the acupuncture group (60.53%, 23/38 cases) than in the sham-acupuncture group (83.78%, 31/37 cases) with statistical difference (P < 0.05). The rate of adverse acupuncture reaction was 5.26% (2/38 cases) in the acupuncture group and 2.70% (1/37 cases) in the sham-acupuncture group respectively, showing no statistical difference (P > 0.05).
Acupuncture therapy could effectively and safely improve the sleep quality of outpatients receiving MMT.