Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Acupoint Stimulation on Smoking Cessation
Smoking represents a serious worldwide public health problem because of its close association with the development of chronic disease and cancer. Acupoint stimulation has been used as treatment mode for smoking cessation but its efficacy remains controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the effects of acupoint stimulation on smoking cessation rate and daily cigarette consumption. Electronic literature searches in eight electronic databases up to March 2011 were performed to identify acupoint stimulation for smoking cessation. The outcomes assessed were smoking cessation rate and cigarette consumption. We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest and last measured time points, and at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Meta-analysis was performed using CMA software. A total of 20 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. A significant effect of acupoint stimulation was found in smoking cessation rates and cigarette consumption at immediate, 3- and 6-month follow-ups, with effect sizes 1.24 (95%CI = 1.07 ~ 1.43, p = 0.003), -2.49 (95%CI = -4.65 ~ -0.34, p = 0.02), 1.70 (95%CI = 1.17 ~ 2.46, p = 0.01), and 1.79 (95%CI = 1.13 ~ 2.82, p = 0.01), respectively. Multi-modality treatments, especially acupuncture combined with smoking cessation education or other interventions, can help smokers to eschew smoking during treatment, and to avoid relapse after treatment.